4 Water sources

Water sources

What is the chemical composition of water? Water is one of the most important components of the earth’s surface, which is characterized by being an inorganic chemical substance, colorless and odorless, present in all states of solid, liquid, and gaseous matter, and is the main component of both the hydrosphere and the bodies of living organisms, where water occupies a large area of ​​more than 71% From the surface area of ​​the earth, it is distributed in each of the seas, oceans, etc., as well as its presence in the form of groundwater and here it must be noted that the symbol H2O, which indicates water in its liquid state, is mainly composed of two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds with one oxygen atom, and therefore it is imperative to know the most important sources of water, and the following are the most prominent of these sources:

Surface water

Surface water is one of the main sources of water, as it includes all water bodies that are located above the surface of the earth, and they are visible, and man can observe them, as they exist in different forms, thanks to that; Surface water constitutes 80% of the total water available for human use in all its forms [3]. The following are the most prominent sources of surface water:

The water of streams and lakes

Lakes and streams are known as bodies of water surrounded by land, so that they are closed or open, and have a widespread in most environments and continents, as their sizes range from small to large, so a lake with a small area that does not exceed a few meters is called ponds, and similar to that when Its area increases significantly and it is called the sea, just as in the Caspian Sea, which is one of the largest lakes in the world.

It is noteworthy that rainwater, snow, melting ice, streams, and leakage resulting from the rise in the groundwater level are the main tributary to this source of water, and open lake water is freshwater, meaning it is suitable for drinking and human use.

Oceans and seas waters

Ocean water is the most prominent form of surface water on the surface of the earth, as it constitutes 97% of all water on the planet, which includes all the world’s oceans, as well as seawater, perhaps the most prominent of which is the Mediterranean Sea, despite this, it is an invalid source. For drinking, due to the large concentration of salts and impurities that make them unfit for human use, but the process of water desalination is one of the ways that contributed to the benefit from this water.

River waters and ice caps

Glaciers are one of the sources of fresh surface water on Earth’s surface, and although freshwater makes up 3% of the total percentage of water, 70% of it is confined to rivers, cover, and ice caps.

In fact, this ice can be melted and benefited from, and unfortunately, the amount of energy required for that is very enormous, and this is what makes the process of melting ice not economically feasible, however, rivers and glaciers have a great role in regulating the atmospheric climate as well as global temperatures, and this is what makes it relevant Great importance in relation to the ecological and climatic balance.

underground water

Water is distributed in the surface of the earth between surface water and groundwater, so that groundwater is one of the sources of fresh water in the world, especially when water seeps from the surface of the earth through rocks and soil layers, and then penetrates into the ground so that it is trapped between the unsaturated and non-saturated layers. Water permeable.

The pores of these layers are filled with air instead of water, but part of this water is retained in the upper layers of the ground, and with time it is possible to notice a rise in the water table inside these layers, in order to contribute to the irrigation of plants, in addition to that, the groundwater supplies surface water. Through springs, and the following are the most important sources of groundwater:

Nazic water

The water of Nazarian origin is the main source of groundwater, so that it is obtained through a process of rain and snow, in addition to the water of reservoirs and lakes, so that the earth receives it again after the process of evaporation, and upon precipitation and melting, this water returns to the ground through the joints of the earth, rock cracks and Then it is stored between the water-impermeable rock layers, and this process is called a meteorite or meteor.

Molten water

The molten water is one of the sources of fresh groundwater, and this is done when hot magma enters the rocks after the volcanic eruption so that it is followed by a process of condensation of the droplets of steam and their transformation into freshwater, which appear on the surface of the earth in the form of springs, wells, and heaters, to contribute to supplying the surface pores once Others, as this water is also known as rock water, as a result of its return to the surface of the earth from the rocks in the ground.

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