The solid, liquid, and gaseous state
An overview of states of matter
The term substance is applied to everything that occupies a space and has a mass, and matter forms the basis of this universe, and is made up of atoms that include three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons, as the atoms combine together to form what are known as the particles that are the basis of all matter, The atoms and molecules within them have a form of potential energy: chemical energy.
Matter exists on the surface of the earth in the form of one of three main states that the ancient Greeks identified based on their observation of water that may exist in any of the three states in natural conditions, and these states are: solid, liquid, and gaseous states, and science has subsequently proven the existence of the fourth state of matter. , Which is the plasma state, which is composed of charged particles with very high kinetic energy, and although it may not be considered one of the common states of matter on the surface of the earth, it is almost the most common state of matter in the universe, as stars are composed in their origin of intense plasma balls the heat.
The solid state is defined as one of the three states of matter, which results when the forces of attraction between the molecules of a substance are greater than the forces of repulsion, which keeps these particles fixed in place, and near each other, but this does not mean that the atoms and molecules of the solid are not It moves, and rather remains in constant motion due to the vibrational energy that it possesses, which causes the particles to vibrate, but in their position, and it is worth noting that the higher the temperature of the solid, the greater the amount of vibration.
The solid material is characterized by a number of properties that distinguish it from other states of matter, which is its possession of a fixed and specific shape. The solid material also has a fixed mass and size, in addition to its high density, thanks to the proximity of its molecules to each other, and it is worth noting that molecules, atoms, and ions are organized in many solid materials in a regular and repeated pattern in the form of a crystalline network, and one of the most famous examples of solid materials Crystalline: table salt, sugar, and diamond. A single substance may have more than one crystalline structure in its structure.
A substance moves from a solid state to a liquid state when the energy in it increases, which is usually in the form of an increase in temperature to the extent that it permits the breaking and dissolution of the bonds between the molecules of the solid matter, and although the particles remain relatively close to each other in the liquid state as well, except That in this situation it possesses kinetic energy that allows it to move away from each other, which increases the chances of colliding together, and the movement increases as the temperature of the liquid increases.
Yet these molecules are still linked to each other by molecular forces such as hydrogen bonds, which try to maintain the survival of the molecules Close together, but they are weak bonds in general that are quickly broken down, and the material in the liquid state is distinguished by a number of properties, such as its ability to change its shape according to the shape of the container in which it is placed, which means that it has a non-fixed shape, but in return it has a fixed size, and is not compressible Easily, due to the affinity of the particles in them with each other.
The gaseous state
The substance moves to the gaseous state when the energy in it increases in a way that exceeds the forces of attraction between the molecules, so the interaction of the molecules of the substance with each other becomes at its lowest levels, so it has freedom of movement very quickly in all directions and for long distances, and the higher the temperature.
Gases are characterized by a number of properties, including their lack of a specific shape or size, if they are placed inside a container, they take on its shape and expand according to its capacity, but when not confined or restricted to a specific container, the gas molecules diverge and spread widely, and gases are also characterized by their low density due to the spacing of their molecules.
In addition to its ability to compress easily, due to the lack of bonding forces between the molecules, or their weak presence, the pressure on the gaseous substance can be increased by reducing the size of the container confined to it, which leads to a decrease in the distance between the particles, and it is worth noting the similarity of the substance in its gas state And liquid being fluids (in English: fluids), that is, they are capable of flowing and flowing on the surface of an object, so the particles in the fluid move randomly and continuously, and collide with each other, and with the walls of the vessel placed in it.